Because dermoid cyst is a germ cell tumor that originates from the 3 layers forming the embryo, cancers of all the structures forming these three layers may develop. However, squamous cell carcinoma derived from the ectoderm is the most frequently developing cancer.
First, let me underline with a thick line again that dermoid cysts, also known as mature cystic teratomas, are found malignant very rarely. The possibility rate is about 0.2 to 2%. Therefore, please keep calm and then read the writing under the heading of “Does It Cause Cancer?” in this website.
The risk is extremely low for those under 45 years of age and for dermoid cysts smaller than 10cm.
But in case of malignant tumor, we need a staging surgery, a surgery intended for removal, and then chemotherapy.
Fertility can be protected in early-stage tumors; but ovaries, where such malignant masses are detected, should definitely be removed, and then a staging surgery should be done.
You can find detailed information in the relevant section of the website.